The Global Burden of Disease 2010 ranked air pollution as a leading cause of death and disability in India accounting for 9% of the national disease burden. Availability of free biomass and agriculture residue will be an important reason for continued use of cookstoves among poor rural household. Hence, CSIR-NEERI has developed a domestic natural draft multi-fuel improved cookstove (ICS) “NEERDHUR” by adopting a comprehensive approach of technological innovations for improved stove efficiency, emission reduction and intensive stakeholder interactions to address issues of adoption such as stove cost, stove maintenance, fuel affordability, and availability. The NEERI stove “NEERDHUR” addresses adoption and sustainability related challenges of ICS. It is a multi-fuel (biomass, charcoal, agro residue etc.) stove with hybrid operation modes. NEERDHUR has been extensively tested in the lab and field for user’s perception and acceptability.
At present, NEERDHUR Cookstove is approved by MNRE on the basis of their performance testing and certified to meet the newly developed cook-stove emission standards by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS 2013). NEERDHUR shows a thermal efficiency of 33.33% with emission levels as CO: 3.78 g/MJd, TPM: 340.10 mg/MJd at a power output of 1.70KW. NEERDHUR is rated best among the MNRE approved Cookstove in terms of thermal efficiency under the 2KW domestic natural draft biomass stoves.
Social Outreach and Implementation Status:
Know-how of “NEERDHUR” Improved Cookstove technology has been successfully demonstrated in 10 villages across 4 states, namely Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and Gujarat. Field trials and IEC have also been done in the above states.
Total number of States covered : 4 (10 villages)
Total Households Benefitted : 800+
Total Beneficiaries : 4000+
Also, a detailed cost analysis has been performed for NEERDHUR: Domestic and benefit-cost ratio was found range between 9.1 and 22.6
CSIR-NEERI has also developed a community cook stove named NEERDHUR Community. This community stove is also approved by the MNRE, Govt. of India on 20.07.2017 after satisfying stipulated performance parameters and is certified to meet the newly developed cook-stove emission standards by bureau of Indian standards (BIS 2013). NEERDHUR shows a thermal efficiency of 28.37 ± 0.73% with emission levels as CO: 2.64g/MJd, TPM: 310.40 mg/MJd at a power output of 7.06 kW. NEERDHUR Community gives highest power output under the community natural draft biomass stoves. Ready for technology transfer and dissemination.
The problem of improper disposal of menstrual waste is one of the important roadblocks to our achieving the Swachh Bharat Mission’s goal to create a clean India. Very large number of menstrual (sanitary) pads is being used by women during their estimated 32 reproductive years. Assuming menstrual cycles in a given year, with the requirement of 8 - 12 napkins per cycle, the average requirement of a woman is approx. 4500 napkin in her lifetime. As per a 2013 estimate, 432 million sanitary napkins were used per month. With much-improved awareness & affordability, this figure has gone up significantly today. If an estimated 121 million girls and women are currently using an average of eight disposable (non-compostable) sanitary pads a month, the waste load generated in India is estimated to be 1.021 billion pads are disposed of monthly, 12.3 billion pads are disposed of annually and 113,000 tons of menstrual waste is generated annually.
While there are plethora of options to consider for sanitary pad waste disposal, de-centralised sanitary waste incinerator at household or community scale is a serious contender to its archaic alternative of sending these sanitary waste to a Common Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Facilities or Dump Sites. The market product on sanitary pad incinerator are unregulated with too low of a temperature for complete combustion thereby exacerbate the toxicity.One of the best ways to dispose of sanitary waste is to incinerate sanitary pads using electrical incinerators without allowing the smoke generated in the process to escape into the atmosphere.
In this regard, CSIR-NEERI has developed an Electric Sanitary Pad Incinerator (GreenDispo) with improved operational efficiency, reduced power consumption meeting the incinerator emission standards. It has been scientifically designed not only to achieve technical performance but its design also offers enhanced durability and attractive look, which is also an important criteria among several rural users now a days.The specially designed heaters of the currently developed GreenDispo generates more than 800°C, which helps in complete combustion of sanitary pad wastes with minimum flue gas emissions and is suitable for unbleached pads and those with high cellulose content.In a further improved model, a secondary heating chamber is provided with temperature of 950 ± 50 °C to avoid hazardous emissions from such incinerators when burning plastics and chlorinated products and can efficiently burn pads with high moisture content and super absorbent polymers (SAP). The product is jointly developed by ARCI Hyderabad, CSIR-NEERI and SOWBAL Aerothermics.